The Barpeta District was carved out of erstwhile Kamrup District of Assam in July 1983. The district derived its name from the head-quarter town of Barpeta. Created as a Civil Sub-Division in 1841 by the British Administration, John Batlor was the first administrative Officer of erstwhile Civil Sub-Division. Today the District consists of two- Civil Sub-Divisions, (1) Barpeta and (2) Bajali. This Lower Assam District covers an area of 2645 square K.Ms and is bounded by Baksa District in the North, Nalbari District in the East, Kamrup and Goalpara District in the South and Bongaigaon District in the West. The latitude and longitude of Barpeta is 26.19' North & 91.00' East respectively.
The general Topography of the Barpeta District varies from low-lying plains to highland having small-hillocks in the South-West-corner of the District, namely Baghbar, Fulora and Chatala overlooking the scenic and mighty Brahmaputra river.
The climate of Barpeta remains mild and pleasant round the year. Tropical monsoon climate of the District provides two distinct seasons- Summer and Winter. The Summer season of March to May is followed by the Monsoons from June to September. This is followed by cool winter season from October to February.
The river Brahmaputra flows from east to west across the Southern part of the district. The tributaries of these river that flows through the District are Beki, Manah, Pohumara, Kaldia, Palla, Nakhanda, Marachaulkhowa and Bhelengi flowing from North to South. Rivers Pohumara and Kaldia joins near Barpeta town to form river Nakhanda whereas Palla and Beki join with Nakhanda to ultimately form Chaulkhowa river.
The Soil of Barpeta District may be classified as Sandy, Sandy-loamy and forest-soils.